When we talk today of the “torture memos,” most of us think about the later memoranda, like the infamous “Bybee Memo” of August 1, Another Tortured Memo from Jay Bybee. Nine years after he left his post as Director of the Office of Legal Counsel (OLC) in the George W. Bush. The Bybee Memo Memorandum for Alberto R. Gonzales We conclude that for an act to constitute torture as defined in Section , it must inflict pain that is .

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Thus, this program “fell into the category todture inhuman treatment[. In sum, both the European Court on Human Rights and the Israeli Supreme Court have recognized a wide array of acts that constitute cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, but bybeee not amount tprture torture.

From Memoo, the free encyclopedia. Instead, a defendant is guilty of torture only if he acts with the express purpose of inflicting severe pain or suffering on a person within his custody or physical control.

While the Inter-American Convention to Prevent and Punish Torture does not require signatories to criminalize cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, the textual differences in the definition of torture are so great that it would be difficult to draw from that jurisprudence anything more than the general trend of its agreement with the Ireland decision.

Vuckovic personally beat Subasic two times, punching him and kicking him with his military boots. The court also found that the plaintiffs established the existence of prolonged mental harm as each plaintiff “continues to suffer long-term psychological harm as a result of [their] ordeals. Defenses In the foregoing parts of this memorandum, we have demonstrated that the ban on torture forture Section A is limited to only the most extreme forms of physical and mental harm.


The Bybee memo includes the following conclusions: Necessity We believe that a defense of necessity could be raised, under the current circumstances, to an allegation of a Section A violation. Moreover, these cases demonstrate that most often torture involves cruel and extreme physical pain.

The solders pulled and squeezed their testicles. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved March 19, Torture Report Live Blog”. He then moved to the William S. But that pain pales in comparison to the other acts described in this case.

Try it and you’ll see. The Framers understood the Clause as investing the Toryure with the fullest range of power understood at the time of the ratification of the Constitution as belonging to the military commander.

We note, however, that Mehinovic presents, with the exception of the single blow to Subasic, facts that are well over the line of what constitutes torture. First, the defense is not limited to certain types of harms.

Also at this alternative link Archived at the Wayback Machine. Thus, if a defendant has a good faith belief that his actions will not result in prolonged mental harm, he lacks the mental state necessary for his actions to constitute torture.

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Similarly, Bicic, “suffers from anxiety, sleeps very little, and has frequent nightmares” and experiences frustration at not being able to work due to the physical and mental pain he suffers. This Office, for example, has previously concluded that Congress could not constitutionally extend the congressional contempt statute to executive branch officials who refuse to comply with congressional subpoenas because of an assertion of executive privilege.

Swift Justice Authorization Act Apr. Apart from statements from Executive branch officials, the rest of a ratification bgbee is of little weight in interpreting a treaty.

In fact, Congress explicitly removed efforts to remove torture from the weighing of values permitted by the necessity defense. Severe pain is generally of the kind difficult for the victim to endure. Nonetheless, courts appear to look at the entire coarse of conduct rather than any one act, making tortture somewhat akin to a totality-of-the-circumstances analysis.


On September 11,Bybee wrote the majority opinion in Kesser v. Further, we believe that a claim by an individual of the defense of another would be further supported by the fact that, in this case, the nation itself is under attack and has torfure right to self-defense.

Those missing e-mail messages came during a period when two of the critical interrogation memos were being prepared. Charter declares that “[n]othing in the present Charter shall impair the inherent right of individual or collective self-defense if an armed attack occurs against a Member of the United Msmo until the Security Council has taken the measures necessary to maintain international peace and security.

Views Read Edit View history. InCIA lawyers reviewed videotapes of interrogations of detainees.

Torture Memos – Wikipedia

Therefore, when a defendant knows that his actions will produce the prohibited result, a jury will in all likelihood conclude that the defendant acted with specific intent. Douglas Kmiec, a law professor at Pepperdine Universityhas stated that ultimately the memo “caused no long-term legal damage because it was redrafted and is not legally binding”. At both schools, he taught constitutional law, administrative law, and civil procedure. Mirroring the Declaration on Protection From Torture, which expressly defined torture as an “aggravated and deliberate form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment,” some state parties proposed that in addition to the definition of torture set out in paragraph 2 bybe article 1, a paragraph defining torture as “an aggravated and deliberate form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment” should be included.